Abstract: In four experiments, we examined the role of auditory transients and auditory short-term memory in perceiving changes in a complex auditory scene comprising multiple auditory objects. Participants were presented pairs of complex auditory scenes that were composed of a maximum of four animal calls delivered in free field; participants were instructed to decide whether the two scenes were the same or different (Experiments 1, 2, and 4). Changes to the second scene consisted of either the addition or the deletion of one animal call. Contrary to intuitive predictions based on results from the visual change blindness literature, substantial deafness to the change emerged without regard to whether the scenes were separated by 500 msec of masking white noise or by 500 msec of silence (Experiment 1). In fact, change deafness was not even modulated by having the two scenes presented contiguously (i.e., 0-msec interval) or separated by 500 msec of silence (Experiments 2 and 4). This result suggests that change-related auditory transients played little or no role in change detection in complex auditory scenes. Instead, the main determinant of auditory change perception (and auditory change deafness) appears to have been the capacity of auditory short-term memory (Experiments 3 and 4). Taken together, these findings indicate that the intuitive parallels between visual and auditory change perception should be reconsidered.